Understanding the Golf Swing Arc

Understanding the Golf Swing Arc

In this article, I will explain some concepts relating to the golf swing arc which can help you to understand how certain changes may affect your ball flight.

This is just a small part of a much bigger picture, but a basic grasp of it can help you diagnose issues and create the ball flight you desire.


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The Arc

Although this has been covered in my article on Low point, it is worth going through briefly here, with some additions.

The golf swing is circular (I know the swing is not a perfect circle, but for purposes of this article, the definition suffices) in nature, as shown in this image of Tiger Woods;

Tiger circle

This circular movement of the clubhead is tilted on an angle, or a plane around our body – so when viewed from down the line with a video camera, it looks like this;


tiger plane

You could almost visualize this as a tilted hula hoop with Tiger Woods standing in the middle of it.

If we were to take a close up look of the golf swing arc around the hitting area, it might look something like this;

swing arc

Before low point

The black line represents the lowest point of the golf swing. From this angle, if the golf ball was hit in the earlier (yellow) part of the swing arc (relative to the same swing)

  • Angle of attack would be more downwards (steeper, or swinging down more)
  • Dynamic loft would be reduced (loft of the club at impact)
  • Bounce would be reduced


The farther you go up the golf swing arc in the direction of the yellow, the more exaggerated these effects can be (during this part of the swing).

So, the tendency to have reduced loft and a steeper AOA may result in lower ball flights relatively. That’s why placing the ball back in our stance helps us flight the ball lower. Also, the reduced bounce and steeper AOA would give the club a tendency to dig into the turf more (worsened by the fact that the low point would have to be deeper and more in front of the ball to create a functional ground contact).



After low point

The reverse of the above is true – a ball struck later (purple) in the golf swing arc will;

  • Have a positive angle of attack (club swinging upwards more)
  • Have more dynamic loft (relatively)
  • Have more bounce


The later in the golf swing arc we hit the ball, the more exaggerated the effects are.

It is very rare that we actually hit the ball after the low point of the golf swing arc. This is because, with every ball which rests on the ground, it is usually more effective to have the low point in front of the ball. The main uses for hitting the ball after low point is in putting, and perhaps in driving, where more carry and total distance can be achieved by hitting with a positive angle of attack.


Swing path along the golf swing arc

Many people have heard of swing path – it is the direction the club is swinging during contact with the ball. It could either be swinging to the right (commonly known as in to out) or swinging more to the left (commonly known as out to in). You can find out more about ball flight laws and how to identify what you are doing in “The Practice Manual – The Ultimate Guide for Golfers”.

However, not many people know that the swing path changes depending upon where you hit the ball in the golf swing arc. To explain this more, take a look at the below image of the swing arc, as viewed from a golfer perspective (right handed).

swing arc above

In the above picture, we see the clubhead travelling down the golf swing arc (yellow) until it reaches the black line (low point). At the lowest point of the swing, the

  • angle of attack is neutral – neither hitting up nor down
  • swing path and swing direction are the same


During this yellow part of the arc, (before low point), the club is;

  • traveling more to the right of the target than at low point
  • will have a more rightward face angle than at low point
  • also, as the clubhead tends to be closing relative to the arc, the face to path relationship will tend to be more open (Kudos to Dr Mike Duffey, Dr Sasho Mackenzie and Dr Phil Cheetham for confirming this)


The reverse is true, with a ball being hit later in the swing arc (purple) tending to have a more positive angle of attack, be travelling more left than at low point, have a more closed face angle and a more closed face to path relationship (all relative to the same swing of course).

This information is important to understand as a player, but especially as an instructor, as a change to low point position is going to have a knock on effect to several other variables.

Changes are not made in isolation



An example

Say we have a typical example of a player who has their low point quite level with the ball, as seen below

low point level with ball

This player will be able to strike a golf ball, but will require better swing arc height control (any drops in swing arc will result in a dramatically different ground contact location). They will tend to hit the ball lower on the club face and struggle out of rough – they will perform best only when the lie is perfect/teed up.

Say we decided to move the low point forwards. This can be done in many ways, each with its own combination of knock on effects. For this example, we will move the swing arc forwards laterally – that is to say without any changes to the swing direction. An example of this would be if you were to shift your weight (dynamically) more towards the target.

low point shifted forwards and deeper

We see here that the swing arc has shifted forwards from the old swing arc (transparent) to the new version (more opaque). If we were to make this change, we would also need to have a corresponding drop in arc height, or it wouldn’t function. The low point position and swing arc height must be matching variables. Also, due to the ball being hit in an earlier part of the swing arc, there would be a tendency (depending upon how similar the motions before/after were) to

  • have reduced dynamic loft
  • have reduced bounce on the club
  • have a steeper angle of attack
  • make a deeper divot (relatively)


Also, viewed from the eyes of a golfer, we would see the following;

divot moved forwards


With the same swing direction but shifted forwards so that the low point is now in front of the ball, and deeper to accommodate that shift, we tend to see

  • a club path (notice the direction the yellow line is traveling during the middle of the golf ball) which is more to the right of the swing direction
  • as the club is hit earlier in the arc, we tend to see a club face which is more open than at low point
  • also, due to the fact (in a normal golf swing) the club face is closing to the path, we tend to see a more open/less closed face to path relationship than at low point.


All of the above means that the player will tend to dig in a bit more to the ground, hit the ball lower and hit the ball more to the right. Note – all of this is relative to doing the same swing but hitting later on the golf swing arc.



Simple advice

All of the above might sound incredibly complex, but as a teacher I use this information to allow me to make a simple change to your golf swing which will have as many positive knock on effects to your game as possible.

For example, if a player I taught had a low point which is too far in front of the ball, is making huge divots, is push slicing, striking high on the club face and hitting more towards the heel of the club, I might be able to kill all of those birds with one stone (if I deem appropriate) by simply saying

Feel like you brush the grass here, and more in this direction

From that advice, a player will start to make automatic changes to swing direction and low point depth, which will have further effects on

  • low point position
  • contact point with the ground
  • contact height on the face
  • face direction relative to the target
  • face to path relationships
  • strike location on the face


The opposite is true also – knowing this information allows me to know what not to do with a player (or at least in which order to make changes).

For that reason, it is important to get quality coaching from your local teaching pro. They are able to take all of this information, synthesize it and relay it to you in as simple form as possible.


Want More?

I discuss a lot of concepts relating to the swing arc, as well as how to change yours in order to improve strike quality in The Strike Plan.

This video series goes through everything you need to know, as well as helpful exercises and techniques to speed up your results. You can find out more about the program by clicking the image below.

Strike plan enter


Learn more

If you want to learn more about impact laws, as well as incredibly in-depth ways to improve your own game using the latest in the science of motor learning, click below to read more about “The Practice Manual – The Ultimate Guide for Golfers” . The book has been a number one bestseller on both sides of the atlantic in amazon’s golf category. It is available also in most European as well as US and Canadian amazon sites.

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Cliff Notes

  • Hitting the ball in different parts of the swing arc will have varying effects on
    • angle of attack
    • bounce
    • dynamic loft
    • clubface orientation
    • face to path relationships
  • Changing the low point position requires a change in swing arc height/depth
  • Changing low point position therefore also affects
    • direction
    • distance
    • strike quality
    • strike consistency
    • trajectory
    • spin
  • Consult with your instructor to find the best way to use this information to help you and your game


  • Chris H.

    I would like to hear more about how to use this swing arc theory towards developing an inside-down the line-inside swing path vs an inside-out path. My divots tend to always go to the right of my target line and I’m trying to improve the path to take out a handsy move to compensate.

    • admin

      Hi Chris. You would be looking at either changing the swing direction (hull hoop orientation) so it is angled more to the left. This might be a good option if you flight the ball high, have a low point which is behind the ball and also tend to have a closed face to path relationship (lots of hooks and draws).

      Another option could be to move your low point farther back. This is a rare case, but I would use this if a player’s angle of attack is too steep, path is too far right, ball flight is low etc. However, you would have to also raise the swing arc height to match. This could be as simple as moving the ball a touch farther forwards in your stance and feeling as if you brush the grass (as opposed to making a big divot).

      • Joe B


        I am a monthly member of your site. 17 handicap my driver is preventing me from getting better. I hit the driver from the inside and shallow nicely but because swinging so hard my arms get pulled away from my body and right before impact my clubhead gets outside the ball target line and i get side spin on my drives so not over the top in transition but i am at the bottom of the swing arc before impact any advice?

        • admin

          Take a look at any of the drills in the swing path module, within the impact drills section of NLG

  • Joe Gidvilas

    What’s the best and easiest way to find your low point? I use the Cobra single length irons.

  • Mark Almeda

    I’m confused by the statement “It is very rare that we actually hit the ball after the low point of the golf swing arc.” On fat shots, isn’t the ball generally contacted after low point? (ie the ground is contacted before the ball) Thx!

    • admin

      Maybe it should read “it’s very rare that we would want to contact the ball after low point”. The main exception to this would be a driver. In your example of a fat shot, in many cases we can still have the low point ahead of the ball and hit it fat (The Strike Plan explains this and how to fix it, in the Arc Depth module)

      • Mark Almeda

        Thanks for clarifying. I’ve got the Strike Plan, and it’s helping!

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