Internal Focus for Golf – Motor Learning Concept

Internal Focus for Golf – Motor Learning Concept

What if a simple change of focus could completely revolutionise your golf game, or ruin you as a golfer?

You may not be aware of it, but, as a golfer, you have many options for where you can place your focus. And luckily, there is a lot of scientific research on each different type of focus and its effects on learning, performance and transference to the course.

In this article, we will look at what is called an internal focus of attention. I will not only give some of the research, but I will give my own personal opinion on it (as the research can be quite limited to the study parameters).


Before We Continue

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What is an Internal Focus?

Imagine you are throwing a ball into a bucket. It is very likely that you will be looking at the bucket and simply visualizing it going in – this is an external focus.

Now, imagine I ask you to focus on the arm movement

  • when you bend your wrist
  • when you bend your arm
  • the point you release the ball
  • the force in your fingertips

This is an internal focus. We are focusing on the movement itself, in particular, the body parts. In golf, internal foci could be having your attention on your left arm, your shoulder turn, hip movement, weight shift, head position, takeaway with the hands etc.

That Means You

Over 95% of golfers I see on a daily basis have internal focuses of attention like this. And it’s easy to see why – turn on the television, pick up a golf magazine or book and you will be instantly inundated with internal focuses. “Do X with your shoulders like Dustin Johnson, or do Y with your arms like Tiger Woods”.

The golf industry is massively weighted in favor of internally focused information.

Paralysis by Analysis

The other week, I had a very analytical German student (now there’s a cliche if ever I heard one). I could see that he was playing poorly because he was inundated with too many thoughts – all of which were internal. In order to demonstrate this message to him, I asked him to throw 10 balls into a bucket nearby. He got 9 out of 10 in.

Then I asked him about his movement. I asked him if he bent his wrist before he bent his arm, at what point in space he released the ball, did he use any wrist action at the point of release. I asked him to describe the motion to me. At first, he looked a little perplexed – when he was originally throwing the ball he clearly wasn’t thinking about the motion (interesting).

After his mind was full of internal analysis of the motion, I asked him to throw another 10 balls into the bucket while focusing on the motion so he could give us a clearer explanation of what he was doing.

The first ball missed the bucket by a couple of feet. He then proceeded to miss the next 7, before (clearly) flipping back to an external focus and getting the last 2 balls in.


This time, he was able to give me a much better explanation of what he did in his motion (as he was more focused on it), yet his ability to get the ball into the bucket severely declined.

I have done this trick so many times with students – it never fails.

Cry Wulf

Gabriele Wulf is an exceptional researcher who has dedicated herself to studying the difference between internal and external focuses of attention. 15 years of research, and she had this to say;

Over the past 15 years, research on focus of attention has consistently demonstrated that an external focus (i.e., on the movement effect) enhances motor performance and learning relative to an internal focus (i.e., on body movements)” (Wulf, 2013)

That’s right, it seems that how you perform, as well as retention of that performance is diminished with an internal focus when compared with an external focus.


When we perform an act, we have the movement and we have the outcome. For example,

  • “move arm ‘this way’ (movement) versus “get the ball in the basket” (outcome).
  • “move body ‘this way'” (movement) versus  “hit the golf ball” (outcome).

However, with an internal focus, we can focus so much on the movement that we lose valuable information relating to the task in hand. For example, thinking about your left arm movement in the golf swing may cause your brain to lose information relating to

  • where the ball is in space
  • where the target is
  • where the club is in space

It’s similar to having a computer with only so much processing power – the more we direct the CPU resources towards an internal focus, the less processing power is available for other relevant information.

As an analogy, imagine you are driving your car along a busy road and you discover there is a bee/spider/snake/lion/something you are afraid of in the car with you. Your attention would be diverted internally (into the car). Even if you have your eyes on the road, your brain will be thinking about where the (insert thing you are afraid of here) is, leaving much less attention available for the road – probably resulting in a crash.

Why is That an Issue?

If your brain is not linking the movement to the external cues, we typically see a drop in coordination.

In a golf swing, our body produces a massive amount of moving parts. Our brain acts as a central coordinator, organizing all of those moving parts (degrees of freedom). If our brain is not focusing on the task, it essentially loses sight of what it is trying to coordinate towards. E.g. if you are trying to strike the middle of the clubface, your brain can work to organize all of the moving parts towards achieving that goal.

However, an internal focus of attention disrupts the coordinative ability of the brain.

An internal focus essentially changes the brain’s goal away from ‘coordinating all the moving parts’, and replaces it with the goal of ‘move X body part this way’

This has been demonstrated in many scientific experiments. This is also why my German student lost his ability to get the ball in the bucket.

Essentially, an external focus allows the brain to absorb all of the external information cues, and automatically work out/coordinate all the body parts to achieve the goal.

However, this goal achievement is not always an instant thing. We still have to enter a Goal-Movement-Feedback loop. We still have to practice – but external focuses can speed up the learning.


A Change of Mind

What most people don’t realise is that, when we learn movements, these movements get linked to the focus we learn them with. A mouthful, I know. Let me explain.

Say you learn to hit chip shots on the practice area by thinking of keeping your weight on your left foot (internal focus). You get to a point where you are hitting the shots quite well – then you go out on the course.

Your first chip shot of the day, you have a delicate shot over a bunker. Your mind immediately starts visualising the flight of the ball (external). As you stand over the shot, your eyes are looking at the ball, but your mind is still thinking about the bunker and flying the ball over it (external).


Do you see the disparity – you learned with an internal focus, yet on the course, you are now thinking externally.

You then proceed to produce a back footed scooping motion – because that is the motion your brain learned with the external focus of attention.

So, if you have ever wondered why you can’t take your game onto the course. If you have ever wondered why all those repetitions you did immediately go out of the window, you now have a potential answer. And when most golfers learn their games with an internal focus, yet flip to external when the result becomes important (such as on the course), we can now see why so many golfers struggle to transfer their game from the range to the course.

Baby, Bath Water

So, the research is pretty clear, and the logic backs it. Due to an internal focus of attention being

  • detrimental to coordination due to the loss of task attention
  • un-couples the environment and movement
  • links the movement to a focus we may not use in a real game

we can see why learning, performance and transference can be shown to be poor with this type of focus. And, as most golfers out there use this type of focus, we can see why everyone struggles so much with this game.

However, don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater.

There may actually be valid uses for this type of focus, which I will explore here.

Learnin’ Don’t Stop

Just because most of the research shows that performance, learning (retention of performance) and transference (performance in a game situation) is worse with internal foci vs external, doesn’t mean these parameters don’t improve at all.

For example, a study may show that external focus of attention outperformed the internal focus – but internal focus may have shown some improvement over baseline values. So learning still happened, just at a slower rate.

It may be that internal focuses improve players via a different mechanism to external foci. For example

External foci – may improve the ability for the body to coordinate movement synergistically, and link it to the environmental cues.

Internal foci – may improve the technical proficiency of the player, allowing them to produce a movement which has a bigger margin for error (what I define as technical consistency).

This would make sense as most studies are quite short-term, and we would more likely see a benefit from improved coordination than improved technique in a short time frame – hence the results of the studies.

We should be careful not to extrapolate from existing studies beyond what they show

Lots of the research is not done long enough to see learners take the internal focuses of attention to the autonomous stage of learning (where they are not thinking about them much). Thus, it could well be that, when enough repetitions have been put in, the learner starts to do the movement more automatically, and can then divert more brain-processing power towards the environmental cues. Just as a learner driver in Europe has to think about what their feet are doing and where the gear stick is during early stages of learning, but now focuses on the road.

In fact, in terms of learning, it could well be that the initial benefits that an external focus of attention offers (from coordination improvements) could eventually stagnate when the player is held back by their technical inefficiencies.

Accuracy Counts

Another plus point for internal focuses of attention is that they can produce better quality movements quicker.

For example, when I learned to drive the ball 56 yards farther, I first had to learn how to increase my angle of attack to produce the desired ball flight. In the early stages of learning, I used an internal focus (body positions in set-up, as well as a feeling of keeping my upper body behind the ball).

Trackman longest drives

Changing my AOA has allowed me to keep up with the longer hitters, despite slow swing speed

If I had simply been told to ‘launch the ball higher’ (external focus), I may have been able to do that with many different set-up positions, but my internal focus (along with my technical knowledge) allowed me to quickly arrive at and ingrain a more effective set-up for my goals.

Essentially, internal instructions can sometimes allow us to arrive at a better answer more quickly.

Isolate and Improve

In 2014, Carson, Collins and Richards showed that focusing internally can reduce the variability of the variable focused on.

For example, if you were to focus on the movement of your left arm, you would

  1. increase your ability to produce the desired motion
  2. reduce the variability with that individual part

We also know that the ability of the body to coordinate all of the other moving parts gets reduced (as Lohse, Sherwood and Healy found in 2010) – so there will be a trade-off. However, in some cases, this may be worth it. For example, in the case where the technique is so poor that no amount of coordination can save it, an internal focus may produce a technique which is so much better, that the reduction in coordination is completely offset.

Also, when working with a long-term outlook (more than a year), improving the motion of a certain body part may force all the other moving parts to organize around it to produce a result. This may produce poor results initially, but when all the other pieces to the puzzle have arranged themselves, we may see a technique with more advantages than the old one.

By isolating the virus, we can change the code, forcing the rest of the program to self-organize around it

Performance Detriments?

Performance losses are not always seen with internal focuses.

Depending on the unique blend of technical, mental and biological consistency a player brings to the table (CLICK HERE to read more about that topic), an internal focus of attention can definitely improve performance.

Although it is much more common to see external focuses produce better performance, in order to find out, I use a specific testing procedure (performance training) which is outlined in The Practice Manual. This procedure allows us to give a much better indication as to how a certain attention will perform.

For more information on how thought processes can dramatically affect your learning and performance in golf, as well as information on how to improve skills, strategy, psychology, technique and more, check out Next Level Golf by clicking the image below.



So, we can see that, while the science is quite overwhelmingly in support of not using internal foci of attention, I think there is a call to keep it in our repertoire.

We just have to know when to use this focus, where to use it, and how much of it to use. For example, internal focuses of attention may be valuable

  • during long-term direct movement changes
  • when technique is so poor that a short-term drop in coordination may be offset by improved technical proficiency
  • when we are looking to get to a more effective technique quicker

However, when we consider performance, transference and short-term learning (less than a year), internal focuses may be harmful.

For this reason, using internal focuses of attention should be periodized away from important tournaments. If you are going to use them, they should be scheduled in with enough time to de-condition the mind, ready for maximal performance when needed. This is why players often go ‘off-the-boil’ when re-vamping their swings. In some cases, they never come back because they are never able to get out of the internal focus of attention.

This is why hearing the phrase “I stopped playing golf and started to play golf swing” comes from the mouth of an ailing tour player way too often.

Also, the 90%+ of golfers who play with an internal swing focus might want to branch out a bit and look at other types of focus which may improve their game quicker.

I personally believe the whole golf industry is dominated too much by internally focused information, and I would like to see it become more balanced. I do use internal foci with my pupils, but I use it very sparingly, and make sure to get players back to a more external focus as soon as possible – or I try my best to get the desired technical changes via an external focus first.

Article References

Carson, H. J., Collins, D., & Richards, J. (2014). Intra-individual movement variability during skill transitions: A useful marker?. European Journal of Sport Science, 14, 327–336. doi:10.1080/ 17461391.2013.814714

Gabriele Wulf , (2013) Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Vol. 6, No. 1, 77_104

Lohse KR1, Sherwood DE, Healy Mov Sci. 2010 Aug;29(4):542-55. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.001. Epub 2010 Jun 11. How changing the focus of attention affects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing.


  • andy williams

    great article adam thank you, i know a lot of amertuer golfers who never practice not even rolling a few putts before they go out to play and then go out and play to a handicap of about 14 or 15 (external focus i assume) the only thing is they seem to stay at this handicap. i also know a lot of golfers who have spent a fortune on golf lessons and just tie themselves up in knots, (internal focus) so as you say it is probably best to have a mixture of the two over a long period of time, personally if i have got time to play nine holes of golf i will do that rather than go to the driving range, there,s plenty of time for the driving range when it,s raining which seems to happening a lot lately cheers andy

    • admin

      Definitely Andy. That’s why I advocate periodisation – where different phases of the season/week have different focuses, depending upon the goal

  • Peter Bower

    Hi Adam, a real interesting read! Are there particular external foci you use on a day to day basis in your lessons?

    • admin


      Ground contact cues
      Face contact cues
      Path cues,
      Clubface cues,
      Divot depth etc

      All very good for improving players. I have learned how to teach those foci very well over the years.

  • Philip

    Very good article. I relate to it by referring to intent versus thought and that it is not until we release our thoughts and allow an activity to just happen that we have a chance to get good at it; whether we are talking about walking, driving a car, or the golf swing. Of course, it is our fears that prevent us from truly letting go and trusting our senses. I often joke that when I am golfing at my best that it is not me doing it – it is just my body and senses – that I’m just along for the ride. However, when I am at my worst it is definitely me and my thoughts. Fact is, our senses have access to processing power that makes our ability to think primitive in comparison.

  • Coachlieb

    Brilliant. The amount of well organized thought you put into this is really great.

  • Doro

    This rhyme I learned as a child could be useful to golfers who, like me, overthink their moves

    The centipede was quite happy till the frog for fun said
    ‘Pray tell me which leg comes after which?’
    Which wrought his mind to such a pitch, he lay distracted in the ditch
    Considering how to run

    • admin

      That’s brilliant – love it.

  • Dave M

    A wonderful article/blog. Thanks for bringing attention to it again with your regular email (I am a new devotee!). I’m glad that 2/3 of the way through you started to discuss a balance between the internal and the external.

    I agree with external focus but I can’t believe it is always best. Can I ask a question based on personal experience. The sport I was good at (basketball) and the sport I was decent at (tennis) are both quite technical sports but not, I’m finding, as much as the sport I’m still struggling at (18 handicap golfer!).

    In both basketball and tennis I found that the key is to “internalise” the mechanics until they are ingrained and then to have a very few “keys” to allow primarily external attention. So, for me, I always needed to get a good follow-through on a jump shot. Two other good shooters I’ve discussed this with had “elbow in” and “get feet set” as their respective keys. As golf is “static” (you get to choose when to swing), I expect it is possible to have as many as three keys in a golf swing (albeit 1 or 2 should be set-up / alignment keys).

    So, I’m trying to reduce my current set of 7 or 8 technique keys to 1 or 2 (I’ve been playing for about four years). Do you think I’m on the right track? Or do you advocate getting to a totally external “hit the ball from here to there” focus? The latter would be akin to Tim Galway’s “Inner Tennis” concept from many years ago. I’m not sure I quite buy that!!

    • admin

      Sounds like you are on the right track. We may need different types of focus at different stages of learning. The problem is, most golfers get stuck in internal thought processes and never get out. If players perform well with these focuses, then that’s fine. But, in my experience, greater long term growth and control is developed when a “task” focus is taken over a “movement” focus.

  • John R

    A great article Adam. I have been working with a professional who’s spends 80% of his time teaching others technique changes (internal focus) and then struggles getting his own game on track because he is always focusing on the internal mechanics of the swing. Your article may help me prove what I have been trying to get him to see for ages that he needs change his focus of attention to external when he is playing.

    • admin

      It’s not uncommon that a player gets to a high level learning externally. Then, when they turn to teaching, they learn a lot of the internal mechanics of the swing and their own game goes south. Obviously many factors involved, but it’s interesting.

  • Christian

    Its all about trust and self-confidence. When we start with the game our focus is external but soon we realize this is not going to work out. So we loose trust in our motor skills. Our focus shifts internal and we spent years, trying to learn the correct technique. But on the course we have to go back and trust our motor skills and this is the difficult part, because there will still be failure.

    One day I went on the course with my Pro and luckily I had a really good day so that my Pro was impressed and praised my game. That moment gave me more trust than 1.000 Range sessions and I made really progress after that day. And I’m german and my focus is normally too much internal 😉

    If you find a way to give people self-confidence and trust in their abilities that would be something!

  • Bjoern

    The best teacher would be a teacher, who could teach keeping your focus external the whole time.

  • Mark

    I agree with this premise. I’ve read The Practice Manual, where you go into more depth about this topic. But here is my problem; when I’m playing and hit a bad shot (usually impact related), I fix on my next swing with an internal swing thought of “shift your weight more here, this arm was out of sorts, move your hands more inside, etc, etc“. And that usually fixes the issue. So the rest of my round is filled with internal swing thoughts. I feel like Ive trained my brain not to trust external thoughts and only internal ones. I’m about a 5 handicap and still feel like I have 5 or 6 swing thoughts in my head.

    • admin

      Hi Mark – it’s ok to have internal thoughts. The article addresses that. If you have better motor control over an impact variable by thinking something internal vs external, that’s absolutely fine. I actually test this in players. I would say that 90% of people have better control with the external thought, but a lot of people have trained their brains to only operate internally. We want to avoid too many thoughts though – that’s why having a toolbox of “fixes” and understanding the interplay between other variables. For example, if someone has a shank, a left path AND fat shots, I can give that player on thought that addresses all 3.

  • Fred Kent

    Great Article!! As a 19 handicapper and having just taken a lesson yesterday, this article has got me thinking to my next move towards improvement. My lesson was focused on getting more compression with four internal cues. Needless to say I struggled. So where do I go from there? Do I keep focusing on those four internal cues or should I think more about external foci…….and how important is compression to a 19 handicapper?

    • admin

      I go through a lot of external cues and drills to move the low point forwards (which usually increases compression) in The Strike Plan.

  • Dave Tutelman

    Fine article, Adam. I really enjoyed it. But one thought kept nagging at the back of my mind.

    Your easy-to-understand example is tossing a ball. “Internal” is the motion of body parts, “external” is the flight and destination of the ball — the mission. But golf has a second interface! The body parts control the club AND the club launches the ball, a second level of indirection.

    In your examples, it seems that you consider how the club hits the ball as the mission, so external focus is about the club motion. (Am I correct that this is your view?) But most instructors who distinguish external from internal focus talk about visualizing the ball flight and what the ball does when it lands. So that needs to transcend the second interface. It also leaves ambiguity about whether club focus is internal or external.

    In everything you write, you stress that the first thing the golfer needs to learn is how impact works. I believe that is consistent with my interpretation of your message. If you understand what the club needs to do at impact, then you can move from visualizing ball flight to visualizing impact, and club motion does indeed become the mission.

    • admin

      Hi Dave. I separate external into two categories – external process (club and ball) and external result (shot outcome). I’m a big proponent of external process. However, all can (and have) been tested. I have data on a chipping test with beginners and higher level players. I tested either internal (mechanical info) vs external process (brush the grass here) vs external result (get the ball over the bunker. What was interesting was beginners responded better to external process, and better players responded better to external result. However, I always test these things on an individual level, as outlined in my book, The Practice Manual –

  • James

    Hi Adam, how do you get your spin so low and smash factor so high with the driver? I swing around same speed and launch floats between 13-19 but my distance suffers as spin is 2400-3500 and smash 1.38-1.41. Carry is around 230-240m 🙁 I have the strike plan so should i be working on something specific from that??

    • admin

      Slight high/toe strikes help, as the toe of the club is moving faster than the rest of the club (hence higher smash). Also, the high-toe is a lower spinning area.

      If you are using GCquad to measure smash, it may be lower than a Trackman, due to how they measure club speed (pre touch vs middle of impact interval)

  • David Holloway

    Adam, Great info.
    Here’s a question for you, which I have asked a few world class coaches who didn’t know the answer.
    So, been pro for 30 years, practice hard but always with swing thoughts. (internal) If I was to hit a golf shot with only a external thought like pick a target and swing, What kind of swing would I produce.? My thought is if I not think of swing moves, I would go back into old habits. thanks, kind regards David

    • admin

      Not necessarily true, as the external thought may produce a different motion to your normal motion. Ultimately, each locus of attention will have a certain movement attached to it. Best example of this is when a player thinks of the target and their old motion/patterns/habits come back. This is because those old motions are attached to that locus of attention.

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